EMS Educators

The National Association of EMS Educators is the best Instructor program that I have ever attended. Dr. Chris Nollette is a great leader and the President of NAEMSE.

Star of Life

The Star of Life has been an EMS symbol for years. Paramedics and Emergency Medical Technicians have identified with the blue star as part of their heritage.

American Heart Association

The American Heart Association has been an advocate promoting healthy hearts for over 50 years. Their efforts to prevent heart disease and educate the general public has saved millions of lives.

Archive for Heart Smart


Trauma Injury

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Trauma can be a wound to the body whether intentional or accidental or as shock which can include psychological. Trauma can cause death or be as minor as a hospital visit. This all depends on they type of trauma and the amount of time that has passed since treatment was sought out. There are several different types of trauma. Some of these types are Penetrating trauma, blunt force trauma, and psychological trauma.

Blunt force trauma often occurs when an injury is inflicted which does not pierce the skin nor organs of the body or any internal space of the body. A blunt force trauma can happen intentionally in such instances as a fight or a brutal attack of sorts. It can also happen unintentionally by means of auto accident or as simple as a fall. Blunt force trauma differs from penetrating in that blunt force trauma is not piercing or puncturing, however it can be just as dangerous and in some cases more dangerous.

Penetrating trauma is when an object pierces the skin, organ or body cavity. This can also be an incident where no outside penetration was the cause but a broken bone or other internal body part was the cause of the piercing or puncture without the piercing of the skin. These types of injuries can be like blunt force traumas in that it can be intentional and unintentional. In cases of intentional it can be from a gun shot or a knife from an altercation. As far as unintentional, like blunt force trauma, penetrating can also occur from an automobile accident or a fall.

Psychological trauma is a result from some sort of traumatic event such as a war, seeing others hurt or from direct violence. You can develop psychological trauma during or after a blunt force or penetrating trauma as well. PALS certification also helps to save children who have been injured in a trauma related incident. Psychological traumas can be long term as well as short term depending on the person. Seeing a professional that is certified in that area of medicine is a must when dealing with this type of trauma.

No matter what type of trauma you have, it is very important that you seek proper medical attention. The quicker you seek medical attention, the higher the chance you will have of having a positive outcome without long term complications. Just because you have been involved in an incident or accident in which a form trauma is not immediately observed doesn’t mean its not there. There is always the risk of internal injuries which you may not know about until its too late. In conclusion, do not play around with any type of injury, no how minor. Getting immediate medical help may save your life or the life of another.



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A Hysterectomy is the surgical removal of the uterus performed to remove fibroid tumors of the uterus or to treat chronic pelvic inflammatory disease. It is also performed to treat severe Endometrial Hyperplasia, uterine hemorrhage and precancerous or cancerous conditions of the uterus. This surgery is usually performed when all other options have been explored and failed. Depending on the reason for the hysterectomy a surgeon may choose to remove all or part of the uterus.

There are several types of hysterectomy’s a surgeon will perform. The first is a Supracervial or subtotal hysterectomy. A surgeon removes only the upper part of the uterus keeping the cervix in place; a total hysterectomy removes the whole uterus and cervix, and a Radical hysterectomy. The radical hysterectomy is when the surgeon removes the whole uterus, tissue on the sides of the uterus, the cervix, and the top part of the vagina. This surgery is needed when cancer is present.

The most common approach to a hysterectomy is the abdominal hysterectomy. This surgery leaves about a 5-7 inch scar on the abdomen. The surgeon may choose to make the incision vertical or horizontal. There are other approaches to a hysterectomy such as vaginal and microscopical, but the most common is the abdominal. A hysterectomy is a low risk surgery. Most women have little or no complications at all. However, as with all surgeries there can be complications. Some women have had problems with urinary incontinence, vaginal prolapse (part of the vagina coming out of the body), chronic pain, and Fistula formation (an abnormal connection that forms between the vagina and the bladder). Other risks include blood clots, and wound infections, which are uncommon. The recovery time after the surgery depends on the woman. Most women are told to abstain from sex and avoid lifting for six weeks after surgery. After a hysterectomy, if the ovaries we removed, a woman will enter menopause. It has also been proven that hormonal therapy is needed if the ovaries were removed. If the ovaries were not removed, a woman will most likely enter menopause at an earlier age. Most women after the surgery feel that the operation was a successful decision and improved or cured their problem.

Although, there is sometimes no prevention for having a hysterectomy, women should get yearly exams. Women should see there OBGYN physicians once a year since our bodies are always changing. You should especially been seen and let your physician know of any family history of female reproductive cancers or diseases. In doing this, you could decrease your chance of ever having these cancers, diseases, and possibly a hysterectomy.

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An EKG also known as an electrocardiogram or ECG is a test that measures problems in electrical activity within the heart. An EKG shows the heart’s electrical activity on a piece of paper in the form of lines. The spikes and dips are also known as waves.

Electrocardiograms are usually implemented to find the cause of chest pain, check the progress of mechanical devices such as pacemakers; check out medication is affecting your heart, and overall health of the heart and to detect if any heart diseases are present. Different types of EKG’s that physicians implement are holter monitoring, event recorder, and stress test.

Some examples in instances when you may have an electrocardiogram test are; during physical examinations, stress test, before a major surgery, and before any surgeries involving the heart, (as well as  Pre, during, or post-surgery). more often than not, there are no risks during an electrocardiogram. Electricity is not run through your body from the machine. So in most cases an electrocardiogram is perfectly safe. The test usually also takes no more than 10 to 15 minutes until completion. Some of the health issues the test will show your doctor are heart rate, heart rhythm, heart attack, inadequate blood and oxygen level to the heart and structural abnormalities to name a few.

It is believed by some doctors that everyone ever 35 should have a baseline EKG done to have something to compare to you as you get older. An EKG cannot predict whether or not you’re going to have a heart attack. In some cases an electrocardiogram may need to be read several days later when comparing to a previous electrocardiogram due to the fact your test can appear to be normal during heart attack. No special preparation is needed before having an electrocardiogram test.

Drinking cold water and physical exertion can cause misleading changes in the electrical patterns during the test. The test can be performed in a hospital or in a doctor’s office. You will usually have anywhere from 12-15 leads or electrodes connected to your body in specific locations, you will be asked to lie still and breath normally as the machine measures your electrical activity. Usually right after the test, your doctor will be able to tell you the results.

In conclusion, echocardiograms are very much more useful in interpreting heart rhythms. They are not meant to prevent nor are they meant to treat any type of heart conditions and or diseases. In some cases that is determined through healthy living and genetics.



cardiac medications

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The pharmaceutical industry has been manufacturing cardiac medications for many years. The price of these medications continues to rise year in and year out. Insurance companies such as Blue Cross and Blue Shield has tried to put a cap on the amount of money that can be charged for medications such as Digoxin. The cost of cardiogenic medications has more than tripled as a result of increased coronary artery disease. We must continue to be proactive in the prevention of myocardial disease. Cardiac medications offer great importance but if there are unaffordable or benefits cannot be obtained.

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Advanced Life Support

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ACLS was developed by the American Heart Association in the early 1970s. The acronym ACLS stands for advanced cardiac life support. The program or certification course teaches health care providers how to deliver cardiac medications as well as advanced airway procedures. The course assumes that you have basic knowledge of anatomy and physiology. In addition, you should know how to interpret EKG’s as well. You will be required to run a mega-code successfully to demonstrate your knowledge in advanced life-support procedures. A 25 question written exam is give to test your knowledge regarding the advanced cardiac life support curriculum.

There is an algorithm known as ventricular fibrillation and ventricular tachycardia. This particular cardiac dysrhythmia can best be treated by early defibrillation. Depending on how long the patient has been in cardiac arrest you may need to administer CPR for least two minutes prior to providing any defibrillation to the myocardium. ?Treatment must be initiated within 2 or 3 minutes in order for you to be successful.


Low Glucose

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Millions of people suffer from low glucose whether it is a Diabetic that took too much insulin and did not have a meal ready to be eaten after taking the insulin or whether it is someone that happens to have low blood sugar from time to time.  If you are a medical professional hopefully you will consider taking a PALS course in the near future.  It will help increase your knowledge of pediatrics and the different types of emergencies that are presented in life.

It is always advisable to help prevent low blood glucose to have glucose tablets available at all times.  It is hard to predict when one will have an episode of low glucose.  The PALS class covers information relevant to children and how to intervene in making a healthier outcome.  Low glucose can effect children as well.  Also, try to have frequent small meals throughout the day.

Also, if you are a diabetic and your medications have been increased or changed it is imperative that you check your blood sugars more frequently.  However, a PALS course does not cover pediatric emergencies with low glucose, but it does cover respiratory emergencies and a low glucose level certainly could fall into this situation.

A friend reported that her husband had an episode during his sleep where he displayed moaning and thrashing his arms over on her.  He complained of feeling “hot”.  When she felt his arm as it laid on her, she noticed it was clammy, sticky and sweaty.  He is a diabetic.  She got up and checked his blood sugar and it was 38.  Normal is 70-110.  He was awake enough to drink a glass of milk and eat a few graham crackers.  Before going back to sleep, she rechecked his blood sugar and it was 80 after 30 minutes of him eating.

Do not get someone to try and eat if they are comatose.  This could cause them to choke or aspirate.  PALS course will teach you how to handle a child that is choking.  Consider this class especially if you are a health care professional in an emergency room department.  Check your glucose levels frequently, eat healthy and eat frequent small meals, and keep follow up appointments with your physician.

Categories : Diabetes, Heart Smart
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